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Christian missionaries perceived the tragic Quetzalcoatl as a Christ-figure. Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca both collaborated in the different creations and that both were seen as instrumental in the creation of life. Tezcatlipoca turned himself into a jaguar and ripped the world apart. The first age, called the Sun of the Earth or the Jaguar Sun, was destroyed. Quetzelcoatl also appeared on (Season 3) of the Animal Planet mockumentary Lost Tapes in an episode entitled "Q the Serpent God". Common ornaments were white turkey feather headdresses, a paper loincloth, and a tzanatl stick with similar feathers and paper decorations. [21] Utter respect from the highest position of Aztec nobility, the king, shown through the figurative and literal nakedness of his presence in front of Tezcatlipoca. [14] There are also several references to momoztli. In Aztec times (14th through 16th centuries) Quetzalcóatl was revered as the patron of priests, the inventor of the calendar and of books, and the protector of goldsmiths and other craftsmen; he was also identified with the planet Venus. [29] The two gods then captured her, and distorted her to make the land from her body. Later on, Xavier and the Aztecs summon Quetzalcoatl in his mortal form and wind up angering him after cutting him open. Quetzalcoatl has been worshiped by all the major Mesoamerican cultures including the Mayans and the Aztecs. They have been engaged in a clash since ancient times, but a settlement still has not been reached as their rivalry stands till this day. This depiction is believed to have been made around 900 BC. This view has been questioned by ethno-historians who argue that the Quetzalcoatl-Cortés connection is not found in any document that was created independently of post-Conquest Spanish influence, and that there is little proof of a pre-Hispanic belief in Quetzalcoatl's return. For I am blind, I am deaf, I am an imbecile, and in excrement, in filth hath my lifetime been... Many temples built to honour Tezcatlipoca were aligned east to west, as he was associated with the sun. For an in depth description and interpretation of the Toxcatl festival see Olivier (2003) Chapter 6. Tlaloc, the god of rain, then became the sun. The reference is of course to the gods of the invading Nahua tribes, the deities Huitzilopochtli, Titlacahuan or Tezcatlipoca, and Tlacahuepan. Quetzalcoatl is not a religious symbol in the Latter-day Saint faith, and is not taught as such, nor is it in their doctrine that Quetzalcoatl is Jesus. Numerous myths relate how Tezcatlipoca expelled the priest-king Quetzalcóatl, the Feathered Serpent, from the latter’s centre at Tula. Also the Classic Maya god of rulership and thunder known to modern Mayanists as "God K", or the "Manikin Scepter" and to the classic Maya as K'awil was depicted with a smoking obsidian knife in his forehead and one leg replaced with a snake. His older brothers were Xipe Totec and Tezcatlipoca while his younger brother was Huitzilopochtli. Some followers of the Latter Day Saints movement believe that Quetzalcoatl was historically Jesus Christ, but believe his name and the details of the event were gradually lost over time. The date 9 Wind is known to be associated with fertility, Venus and war among the Maya and frequently occurs in relation to Quetzalcoatl in other Mesoamerican cultures. Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl Tezcatlipoca was often described as a rival of another important god of the Aztecs, the culture hero, Quetzalcoatl. [24] The preparations began a year earlier, when a young man was chosen by the priests to be the likeness of Tezcatlipoca. [42], In 1971 Tony Shearer published a book called Lord of the Dawn: Quetzalcoatl and the Tree of Life, inspiring New Age followers to visit Chichen Itza at the summer solstice when dragon-shaped shadows are cast by the Kulkulcan pyramid.[43]. Over time, Quetzalcoatl's appearance, clothing, malevolent nature, and status among the gods were reshaped to fit a more Christian framework. In later myths, the four gods who created the world, Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl, Huitzilopochtli and Xipe Totec were referred to respectively as the Black, the White, the Blue and the Red Tezcatlipoca. [10] However, the fact that many images are difficult to identify as one god or another does not mean that no generalizations can be made about Tezcatlipoca's appearance. [20], To the Aztecs, Quetzalcoatl was, as his name indicates, a feathered serpent, a flying reptile (much like a dragon), who was a boundary-maker (and transgressor) between earth and sky. The archaeological record shows that after the fall of Teotihuacan that marked the beginning of the epi-classic period in Mesoamerican chronology around 600 AD, the cult of the feathered serpent spread to the new religious and political centers in central Mexico, centers such as Xochicalco, Cacaxtla and Cholula. "Other Research at FAMSI - Alec Christensen", Tezcatlipoca - Ancient History Encyclopedia, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C3yYjzEhI5M&fbclid=IwAR0lkwsldbCosyD3sBcUHca3ki-aZPbQ-eVf-W_hVrgis9rfJBmhsihPi_0, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tezcatlipoca&oldid=1001319909, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Classical Nahuatl-language text, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 January 2021, at 05:03. One of the four sons of Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl, he is associated with a wide range of concepts, including the night sky, the night winds, hurricanes, the north, the earth, obsidian, enmity, discord, rulership, divination, temptation, jaguars, sorcery, beauty, war, and strife. The Main temple of Tezcatlipoca in Tenochtitlan was located south of the Great Temple. They maintained a major pilgrimage and commercial center at Cholula, Puebla which the Spaniards compared to both Rome and Mecca because the cult of the god united its constituents through a field of common social, political, and religious values without dominating them militarily. Transformed into giant snakes, the two gods attacked and dismembered the female reptilian m… The next morning, Quetzalcoatl, feeling shame and regret, had his servants build him a stone chest, adorn him in turquoise, and then, laying in the chest, set himself on fire. He is sometimes the adversary of the god Quetzalcoatl and sometimes the ally. He was known as the inventor of books and the calendar, the giver of maize (corn) to mankind, and sometimes as a symbol of death and resurrection. In the Legend of the Suns, their battles saw them topple each other as regents of individual worlds. The priests of Tezcatlipoca often wore the ornaments of the god and wore specific garments for different rituals. As discussed above, Aztec folklore is rife with parallels, much of the time depicted in deities such as Tezcatlipoca. In the aspect in which he is mainly portrayed, Tezcatlipoca is the Destroyer figure. [17] They would also cover the sick and newly appointed king in a similar manner with a black ointment to encourage an association with the god. She cried for many years and the world was destroyed by the resulting floods. This marriage, occurring after a full year of abstinence, symbolized a period of fertility which followed the drought. So the combination of quetzalli "precious feather" and coatl "snake" has often been interpreted as signifying a serpent with the feathers of Quetzal. The gods were: Huitzilopochtli (south), Quetzalcoatl (east), Tezcatlipoca (west), and Xipe Tote (north). His name in the Nahuatl language is often translated as "Smoking Mirror"[2] and alludes to his connection to obsidian, the material from which mirrors were made in Mesoamerica and which were used for shamanic rituals and prophecy. This talisman was carved out of abalone shell and depicted on the chest of both Huitzilopochtli and Tezcatlipoca in codex illustrations. [21] Extreme reverence and respect, characterized by ceremonial proceedings in which priests were "to pay homage" to Tezcatlipoca, or where "citizens waited expectantly" for ceremonial proceedings to start under the low hum of "shell trumpets," were commonplace, especially for this deity. The first culture to use the symbol of a feathered serpent as an important religious and political symbol was Teotihuacan. In later myths, the four gods who created the world, Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl, Huitzilopochtli and Xipe Totec were referred to respectively as the Black, the White, the Blue and the Red Tezcatlipoca. [27] The young man also was dressed in the likeness of the god and people on the streets would worship him as such when encountered. Other legends posited that Quetzalcoatl was the son of the goddess Chimalma. Historians debate to what degree, or whether at all, these narratives about this legendary Toltec ruler describe historical events. Women were sometimes sacrificed as ixiptla to honor female deities. The four Tezcatlipocas were the sons of Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl, lady and lord of the duality, and were the creators of all the other gods, as well as the world and all humanity. Franciscans such as Toribio de Benavente "Motolinia" saw elements of Christianity in the pre-Columbian religions and therefore believed that Mesoamerica had been evangelized before, possibly by Thomas the Apostle, who, according to legend, had "gone to preach beyond the Ganges". [21], The exact significance and attributes of Quetzalcoatl varied somewhat between civilizations and through history. [18] When the ritual called for it, priests would also dress up as Tezcatlipoca himself and accompany other similarly outfitted gods or goddesses. [39], Quetzalcoatl was fictionalized in the 1982 film Q as a monster that terrorizes New York City. [40][41] The deity has been featured as a character in the manga and anime series Yu-Gi-Oh! Powers and Stats. Quetzalcoatl went to Mictlan, the underworld, and created fifth-world mankind from the bones of the previous races (with the help of Cihuacoatl), using his own blood, from a wound he inflicted on his earlobes, calves, tongue, and penis, to imbue the bones with new life. The feathered serpent was furthermore connected to the planet Venus because of this planet's importance as a sign of the beginning of the rainy season. In the post-classic Nahua civilization of central Mexico (Aztec), the worship of Quetzalcoatl was ubiquitous. Tezcatlipoca is the offspring of the creator couple, who produced four sons: Red Tezcatlipoca, Black Tezcatlipoca, Qeutzalcoatl, and Huitzilopochtli (the patron god of the Aztecs). He was a creator deity having contributed essentially to the creation of mankind. One of Tezcatlipoca’s brothers was Quetzalcoatl. Tezcatlipoca was also honoured during the ceremony of the 9th month, when the Miccailhuitontli "Little Feast of the Dead" was celebrated to honour the dead, as well as during the Panquetzaliztli "Raising of Banners" ceremony in the 15th month. Tezcatlipoca was hell-bent on destroying Quetzalcoatl and the Toltecs. A feathered serpent deity has been worshiped by many different ethno-political groups in Mesoamerican history. Historian Matthew Restall concludes that: The legend of the returning lords, originated during the Spanish-Mexica war in Cortés' reworking of Moctezuma's welcome speech, had by the 1550s merged with the Cortés-as-Quetzalcoatl legend that the Franciscans had started spreading in the 1530s. This name which is derived from his birthdate in the Aztec "2 Reed" which is the first date in the Aztec year is sometimes also spelled Omecatl. Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl. is a Divine Spirit of Aztec mythology from Mesoamerica. [34] Some Franciscans at this time held millennarian beliefs[35] and some of them believed that Cortés' coming to the New World ushered in the final era of evangelization before the coming of the millennium. This confederacy engaged in almost seventy-five years of nearly continuous conflict with the Aztec Empire of the Triple Alliance until the arrival of Cortés. In the example from Yaxchilan, the Vision Serpent has the human face of the young maize god, further suggesting a connection to fertility and vegetational renewal; the Maya Young Maize god was also connected to Venus. The name Quetzalcoatl literally means "feathered snake". Although the exact definition of the momoztli is unknown, with definitions varying from "mound", "stone seat" and "temple", there is an overall consensus that it is a general holy place to worship the gods, specifically mentioned as "his [Tezcatlipoca's] viewing place".[15]. [25] Sometimes, slaves were purchased for the ceremony, and in this case, were bathed carefully to erase impurities. Tezcatlipoca is a divine sorcerer. [36] However, in 1892 one president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, John Taylor, wrote:[37]. This constitutes the Late Pre-Classic period of the iconography of different Mesoamerican cultures including the and! 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