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[17], On 14 December 2002, the Norwegian car carrier MV Tricolor collided with the Bahamian-registered Kariba and sank off Dunkirk Harbour, causing a hazard to navigation in the English Channel. It lies 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the Belgian border. Dunkirk Tourism: Tripadvisor has 26,651 reviews of Dunkirk Hotels, Attractions, and Restaurants making it your best Dunkirk resource. All dies kommt in »Dunkirk« nur sehr fein dosiert vor. In 1658, as a result of the long war between France and Spain, it was captured after a siege by Franco-English forces following the battle of the Dunes. However, the archduke defeated the French troops in 1479 at the Battle of Guinegate. Spanish Netherlands 1652–1658 On a regular basis, heavy shells weighing approximately 750 kg were fired from Koekelare, about 45–50 km away. [9], From 1915, the city experienced severe bombardment, including from the largest gun in the world in 1917, the German 'Lange Max'. Several weeks after the scheme had been introduced, the city's mayor, Patrice Vergriete, reported that there had been 50% increase in passenger numbers on some routes, and up to 85% on others. France 1662–1870 The English governors were Sir William Lockhart (1658–60), Sir Edward Harley (1660–61) and Lord Rutherford (1661–62). Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The main character (and possible real prisoner) in the famous novel Man in the Iron Mask by Alexandre Dumas was arrested at Dunkirk. For the people in western Europe, World War Two was about to … Nevertheless the general concept about Dunkirk is an evocative name that is synonymous to the Second World War. The town was by-passed masking the German garrison with Allied troops, notably 1st Czechoslovak Armoured Brigade. It lies along the Strait of Dover between Calais and the Belgian frontier, 49 miles (79 km) northwest of Lille by road. However, German forces refused to relinquish their control of the city, which had been converted into a fortress. Many wounded who were unable to walk were abandoned. It lies along the Strait of Dover between Calais and the Belgian frontier, 49 miles (79 km) northwest of Lille by road. Using this measurement and the latitudes of the two cities they could calculate the distance between the North Pole and the Equator in classical French units of length and hence produce the first prototype metre which was defined as being one ten millionth of that distance. The industrial zone has become the site of a series of heavy industries, including steel, oil-refining, petrochemical, and aluminum production. The gap left by the Belgian Army stretched from Ypres to Dixmude. After the count had been killed in the 1346 Battle of Crécy, his son and successor Count Louis II of Flanders (1346–1384) signed a truce with the English; the trade again flourished and the port was significantly enlarged. The city along with Fort-Mardyck was awarded to England in the peace the following year as agreed in the Franco-English alliance against Spain. During the German occupation, Dunkirk was largely destroyed by Allied bombing. It took over 900 vessels to evacuate the BEF, with two-thirds of those rescued embarking via the harbour, and over 100,000 taken off the beaches. Dunkirk, and the evacuation associated with the troops trapped on Dunkirk, was called a “miracle” by Winston Churchill. The port was expanded in the 1670s by the construction of a basin that could hold up to thirty warships with a double lock system to maintain water levels at low tide. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Dunkirk: belfry. Upon the extinction of the Counts of Flanders with the death of Louis II in 1384, Flanders was acquired by the Burgundian, Duke Philip the Bold. In the war against Covid, where is the government's Dunkirk spirit? Dunkirk is an American city. [15] Hitler merely validated the order several hours later. Dunkirk is a small town on the coast of France that was the scene of a massive military campaign during World War II. Dunkirk, Hauts-de-France, France. The belfry was chosen as the reference point in Dunkirk. It came under French rule when King Charles II of England sold it to France for £320,000[6] on 17 October 1662. [18], At their base, the arms display the insignia of the four medals awarded to the city: the Legion of Honour, Croix de Guerre and British Distinguished Service Cross for World War I; and a second Croix de Guerre for World War II. Dunkirk’s great artificial port was largely rebuilt after 1945 and subsequently expanded to form a deepwater port and industrial zone to the west of the town. It has the third-largest French harbour. In exchange for another lockdown, we need to see greater action, innovation and a timetable for rolling out the vaccine This clause was overturned in the subsequent Treaty of Versailles of 1783. The Battle of Dunkirk (French: Bataille de Dunkerque) was fought in Dunkirk (Dunkerque), France, during the Second World War, between the Allies and Nazi Germany.As the Allies were losing the Battle of France on the Western Front, the Battle of Dunkirk was the defence and evacuation to Britain of British and other Allied forces in Europe from 26 May to 4 June 1940. The name Dunkirk derives from West Flemish "dun" (Dune) and "Kerke" (Church). The jetties, their forts, and the port facilities were demolished in 1713 under the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht. Imports dominate and include iron ore, coking coal, and crude and refined oil. 665 Squadron RCAF. However, in the course of the Western Schism from 1378, English supporters of Pope Urban VI (the Roman claimant) disembarked at Dunkirk, captured the city and flooded the surrounding estates. Unexpectedly, the German Panzer attack halted for several days at a critical juncture. At the beginning of the Eighty Years' War, Dunkirk was briefly in the hands of the Dutch rebels, from 1577. Dunkirk is a small town in the northernmost tip of France. Latitude and longitude coordinates are: 51.050030, 2.397766. Diese leben zumeist von der brachialen Action, den zahlreichen Gefechten und Kampfszenen und der Mission, der sich die Protagonisten stellen müssen. More than 400,000 soldiers were trapped in the pocket as the German Army closed in for the kill. The population was 2,362 at the 2010 census. Dunkirk (2017) Movies, TV, Celebs, and more... Oscars Best Picture Winners Best Picture Winners Golden Globes Emmys STARmeter Awards San Diego Comic-Con New York Comic-Con Sundance Film Festival Toronto Int'l Film Festival Awards Central Festival Central All Events Near that square is a belfry, 131 feet (40 metres) high, that was built in the 15th century and restored after severe damage by fire in 1940. Spanish forces under Duke Alexander Farnese of Parma re-established Spanish rule in 1583 and it became a base for the notorious Dunkirkers. Dunkirk is a city in Blackford and Jay counties in the U.S. state of Indiana. Dunkirk Dunkirk is a town in the region of Hauts-de-France in France.The town is a historic resort, 10 km from the border with Belgium.If you're coming from the UK, it's a great place to start your journey further into the Continent, but also a great holiday… England 1659–1662 This article is about the French commune. The railway line from Dunkirk to De Panne and Adinkerke, Belgium, is closed and has been dismantled in places. German occupation 1940–1945. Considered one the wealthiest places to live inside the Washington, … Spanish Netherlands 1583–1646 Dunkirk's position in the North Sea and its proximity to the rich region of Flanders meant the town inevitably changed hands several times: in 1659 it belonged to the English; in 1662 it was bought back by Louis XIV. See Article History. Dunkirk has a ferry with the firm DFDS with regular services each day to England. Dunkirk is a census-designated place (CDP) in Calvert County, Maryland, United States. Dunkirk (French: Dunkerque) is a small town on the coast of northern France.It is the northernmost city in France, lying about 6.2 miles from the Belgian border and was the scene of a massive miliary campaign during Word War Two. Dunkirk lies just south-east of the Cheshire border. (1999) 97,957; (2014 est.) Dunkirk, French Dunkerque, town and seaport, Nord département, Hauts-de-France région, northern France. [20] As an industrial city, it depends heavily on the steel, food processing, oil-refining, ship-building and chemical industries. When Mary died in 1482, Maximilian retained Flanders according to the terms of the 1482 Treaty of Arras. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Dunkirk was again contested in 1944, with the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division attempting to liberate the city in September, as Allied forces surged northeast after their victory in the Battle of Normandy. Forty thousand Allied soldiers (some who carried on fighting after the official evacuation) were captured or forced to make their own way home through a variety of routes including via neutral Spain. However, according to the Official War Diary of Army Group A, its commander, Generaloberst Gerd von Rundstedt, ordered the halt to allow maintenance on his tanks, half of which were out of service, and to protect his flanks which were exposed and, he thought, vulnerable. Christopher Nolan’s Dunkirk is likely to be the most widely seen or read depiction of history released in 2017. [9][13] These decorations now appear in the city's coat of arms.[14]. The Tour du Leughenaer (Tour du Leughenaer [fr]) (the Liar's Tower), The remains of the East Mole of Dunkirk harbour, pictured in 2009. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. It lies 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the Belgian border. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/place/Dunkirk-France, Dunkirk - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Looking to watch Dunkirk? The base closed shortly after the Armistice of 11 November 1918. England and France 1658–1659 The artillery siege of Dunkirk was directed on the final day of the war by pilots from No. The satellite coordinates of Dunkirk are: latitude 53°15'6"N and longitude 2°55'39"W There are 2781 places (city, towns, hamlets …) within a radius of 100 kilometers / 62 miles from the center of Dunkirk, the nearest place in the area is Lea by Backford, Cheshire. The population of the commune at the 2016 census was 91,412. Wenn man sich den Film »Dunkirk« ansieht, wird man sehr schnell merken, dass er sich merklich von den üblichen Kriegsfilmen abhebt. Assessing the situation, von Rundstedt advocated holding his armor west and south of Dunkirk, as the marshy terrain was unsuitable for armored operations and many units were worn down from advance west. Dunkirk (French: Dunkerque, Dutch: Duinkerke) is a town in the region of Nord-Pas de Calais in France.. Dunkirk is located in the county of Staffordshire, West Midlands, two miles south-west of the town of Kidsgrove, five miles north-west of the major town of Newcastle-under-Lyme, 116 miles north of Cardiff, and 141 miles north-west of London. 25 Best Shows of the Year. Add Dunkirk to your Watchlist to find out when it's coming back. The area is very fast-growing, with many large estate homes. The surrounding wetlands were drained and cultivated by the monks of nearby Bergues Abbey. 89,160. Corrections? Jean Bart was the most famous. The Gare de Dunkerque railway station offers connections to Gare de Calais-Ville, Gare de Lille Flandres, Arras and Paris, and several regional destinations in France. To seize the now strategically insignificant town would consume too many Allied resources which were needed elsewhere. [21] The definitive metre bar, manufactured from platinum, was presented to the French legislative assembly on 22 June 1799. First mentioned in 1067 as Dunkerk (Flemish: “Church of the Dunes”), the town was besieged and sacked six times during the Middle Ages and was in the centre of conflicts between France, Spain, England, and Holland in the 16th and 17th centuries before it was finally recovered by France in 1662. Nevertheless, a collapse was prevented and evacuate by sea across the English Channel, codenamed Operation Dynamo. The eighteenth-century Swedish privateers and pirates Lars Gathenhielm and his wife Ingela Hammar, are known to have sold their gains in Dunkirk. The fortifications were again enlarged, including the construction of a belfry daymark (a navigational aid similar to a non-illuminated lighthouse). For years, it was assumed that Adolf Hitler ordered the German Army to suspend the attack, favouring bombardment by the Luftwaffe. The population was 2,363 at the 2000 census. As part of the transition towards offering free bus services, the city's fleet was expanded from 100 to 140 buses, including new vehicles which run on natural gas. He did take me to see the original film with Sir John Mills which he thought was a fairly close description of events and also years later took me and my brother to Dunkirk where we walked his battlefield. [22] As of August 2019, approximately 5% of 2000 people surveyed had used the free bus service to completely replace their cars.[23]. Until the middle of the 20th century, French Flemish (the local variety of the Dutch language) was commonly spoken in Dunkirk; it has largely been forsaken, although it can still be heard. Guy's son, Count Robert III (1305–1322), nevertheless granted further city rights to Dunkirk; his successor Count Louis I (1322–1346) had to face the Peasant revolt of 1323–1328, which was crushed by King Philippe VI of France at the 1328 Battle of Cassel, whereafter the Dunkirkers again were affected by the repressive measures of the French king. In September 2018, Dunkirk's public transit service introduced free public transport, thereby becoming the largest city in Europe to do so. Pop. 652 Squadron RAF, and No. An additional fort was built in 1701 called Fort Blanc. France 1873–1940 Dunkirk is a commune in Nord, a French department in northern France. More than 40,000 vehicles as well as massive amounts of other military equipment and supplies were left behind, their value being regarded as less than that of trained fighting men. Dunkirk, along with the rest of Flanders, was incorporated into the Habsburg Netherlands and upon the 1581 secession of the Seven United Netherlands, remained part of the Southern Netherlands, which were held by Habsburg Spain (Spanish Netherlands) as Imperial fiefs. Sightings were made of signal lights at Dover Castle from the Dunkirk Belfry, and vice versa. Traveling to Army Group A's headquarters at Charleville on May 24, Hitler urged its commander, General Gerd von Rundstedt, to press the attack. Dunkirk is located in Cheshire West and Chester, Cheshire in England, UK. Spanish Netherlands 1556–1577 Updates? British and other Allied troops waiting to be evacuated from the beach at Dunkirk, France, 1940. [citation needed] The fortress, under the command of German Admiral Friedrich Frisius, eventually unconditionally surrendered to the commander of the Czechoslovak forces, Brigade General Alois Liška, on 9 May 1945. Dunkirk Rebels 1577–1583 Forced by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 to demolish the fortifications, France was not allowed to rebuild them until the late 18th century. The Treaty of Paris (1763) between France and Great Britain ending the Seven Years' War, included a clause restricting French rights to fortify Dunkirk, to allay British fears of it being used as an invasion base to cross the English Channel. MS. Carte 218, fol(s). [12], In October 1917, to mark the gallant behaviour of its inhabitants during the war, the City of Dunkirk was awarded the Croix de Guerre and, in 1919, the Legion of Honour and the British Distinguished Service Cross. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. [citation needed] Count Philip I (1157–1191) brought further large tracts of marshland under cultivation, laid out the first plans to build a Canal from Dunkirk to Bergues and vested the Dunkirkers with market rights. The port itself is capable of accepting 300,000-ton vessels and is the third largest complex in France (after Marseille and Le Havre) in terms of the amount of traffic handled. The area remained much disputed between the Kingdom of Spain, the United Netherlands, the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France. During the Second World War, in the May 1940 Battle of France, the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), while aiding the French and Belgian armies, were forced to retreat in the face of the overpowering German Panzer attacks. The writer Robert W. Service, then a war correspondent for the Toronto Star, was mistakenly arrested as a spy and narrowly avoided being executed out of hand. Omissions? Dunkirk, and the evacuation associated with the troops trapped on Dunkirk, was called a “miracle” by Winston Churchill. Dunkirk was a critical turning point in World War II.German dictator Adolf Hitler’s blitzkrieg strategy depended on maintaining concentrated forward momentum in its invasion of France and Belgium; Germany had overrun the region by May 1940. This work was completed by 1678. 'Dunkirk' heavily features the breakwater called the mole, where soldiers were exposed targets while waiting for a boat ride home. What county is Dunkirk in? The commune has grown substantially by absorbing several neighbouring communes: Dunkirk has the third-largest harbour in France, after those of Le Havre and Marseille. During World War II, in May–June 1940, the British Expeditionary Force and other Allied troops, cut off by the Germans, were evacuated from Dunkirk to England by naval vessels and hundreds of civilian boats. The town's existing defences were adapted to create ten bastions. [26] Summer high temperatures average around 20 to 21 °C (68 to 70 °F), being significantly influenced by the marine currents. My father was at Dunkirk and told me very little of what happened. As the Wehrmacht swept through western Europe in the spring of 1940, using Blitzkrieg, both the French and British armies could not stop the onslaught. The basin was linked to the sea by a channel dug through coastal sandbanks secured by two jetties. In one of the opening scenes of “Dunkirk”, a fleeing British soldier, terrified and haggard, is allowed to scramble over a barricade manned by French soldiers. Dunkirk, French Dunkerque, town and seaport, Nord département, Hauts-de-France région, northern France. Habsburg Netherlands 1482–1556 Dunkirk (UK: /dʌnˈkɜːrk/, US: /ˈdʌnkɜːrk/;[3][4] French: Dunkerque [dœ̃kɛʁk] (listen); French Flemish: Duunkerke; Dutch: Duinkerke(n) [ˈdœynkɛrkə(n)] (listen)) is a commune in Nord, a French department in northern France. Dunkirk was the most easterly cross-channel measuring point for the Anglo-French Survey (1784–1790), which used trigonometry to calculate the precise distance between the Paris Observatory and the Royal Greenwich Observatory. The British Expeditionary Force being surrounded by invading Germans at Dunkirk and evacuated from France by a motley rescue fleet of military ships and private boats; from. [10] The bombardment killed nearly 600 people and wounded another 1,100, both civilian and military, while 400 buildings were destroyed and 2,400 damaged. [14], The city also has its own flag, made up of six horizontal stripes of alternate white and azure blue.[14]. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Dunkirk has a marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps. Dunkirk’s service sector is still underdeveloped, although the port has stimulated the growth of transport-related activities, and the town is home to a branch of the Opal Coast University, located in the former docklands. The name of Dunkirk derives from West Flemish dun(e) 'dune' or 'dun' and kerke 'church',[citation needed] which together means 'church in the dunes'.[5]. The Dunkirkers briefly lost their home port when the city was conquered by the French in 1646 but Spanish forces recaptured the city in 1652. It was originally the western tower of the Gothic church of Saint Éloi (damaged in World Wars I and II) but was separated from it by a street in the 18th century. Dunkirk is located at 40°22′28″N 85°12′35″W / 40.37444°N 85.20972°W / 40.37444; -85.20972 (40.37, -85.21), primarily within Jay County but with a section neighboring Blackford County. The town was liberated by the U.S. Army in May 1945, but more than three-quarters of its houses were destroyed in the fighting. Granted, Dunkirk is not a destination for a two-week break, any more than you’d spend a fortnight in Harwich. The city's population, which had been 39,000 in 1914, reduced to fewer than 15,000 in July 1916 and 7,000 in the autumn of 1917. Count Louis remained a loyal vassal of the French king upon the outbreak of the Hundred Years' War with England in 1337, and prohibited the maritime trade, which led to another revolt by the Dunkirk citizens. The French government developed the town as a fortified port. The town was subsequently rebuilt on a new plan, with the spacious Place Jean Bart in the centre. Alternative Title: Dunkerque. However, Hitler exercised restraint at Dunkirk, halting his panzer tanks short of the seaport only days before the evacuation. Find out where Dunkirk is streaming, if Dunkirk is on Netflix, and get news and updates, on Decider. France 1646–1652 Dunkirk has co-operation agreements with: Dunkirk has an oceanic climate, with cool winters and warm summers. More-recent diversification has led to the development of pharmaceuticals and the production of cans for the beverage industry. The principal exports are refined oil products and cereals. [8], Dunkirk's port was used extensively during the war by British forces who brought in dock workers from, among other places, Egypt and China. The Allied position was complicated by Belgian King Leopold III's surrender on 27 May, which was postponed until 28 May. Dunkirk is a beautiful old small city in the northernmost part of France, located on the shores of the La Manche Strain, about 7 miles west of the border between France and Belgium. Check if it is available to stream online via "Where to Watch". The old port zone near the centre of the town, following the closure of the shipyards, has been redeveloped, with retailing, a maritime museum, and a marina. 1482 Treaty of Arras rebuilt on a regular basis, heavy shells weighing approximately 750 kg fired. 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