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Mauriello Jr, Joseph A., and Atypical Mycobacterial Study Group. Pulmonary infections and rheumatoid arthritis. Archives of dermatology 144.7 (2008): 941-942. Please remove adblock to help us create the best medical content found on the Internet. Proc R Soc Med. The author examined computed tomographic (CT) scans of the chest from 40 patients with cultures positive for atypical mycobacteria. The prognosis is good for a majority of the affected individuals, with prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Pulmonary manifestations of nontuberculous Mycobacterium. Golden, and Richard E. Fitzpatrick. NIH They aren't "typical" because they don't cause tuberculosis. The prognosis is good for a majority of the affected individuals, with prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment, Individuals of all ages can develop Atypical Mycobacterial Infections. Change in lung function in never-smokers with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease: A retrospective study. doi: 10.1017/S0950268819000293. Symptoms of the M. kansasii lung disease resemble to tuberculosis. Bhambri, Sanjay, Avani Bhambri, and James Q. Del Rosso. Atypical Mycobacterial Infection in Sequestrated Lung in an Infant Presenting with Chronic Pneumonitis and Recurrent Wheezing HHS "Atypical mycobacterial infection of the head and neck in children: a 5-year retrospective review." Epub 2017 Jul 14. Radiology. Y1 - 1993/6. intracellulare, and M. chimaera. There is little evidence of person-to-person spread of atypical mycobacterial organisms. The most common are Mycobacterium avium complex or MAC. Comparison of clinical characteristics of patients with Mycobacterium avium complex disease by gender. Marras TK, Wagnetz U, Jamieson FB, Patsios DA. 73-7) or nontuberculous mycobacteria, has not been demonstrated to be more common in association with CWP in the absence of silicosis. T1 - Atypical mycobacterial infection in the lung. 2018 Mar 14;11:17-21. doi: 10.1016/j.jctube.2018.02.002. Author information: (1)Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Fungi in Bronchiectasis: A Concise Review. Atypical Mycobacterial Infections are caused by any species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria. (Etiology) Atypical Mycobacterial Infections are caused by any species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Validation of a model for predicting smear-positive active pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with initial acid-fast bacilli smear-negative sputum. Less commonly observed … Still others cause infections that are called atypical mycobacterial infections. Atypical mycobacterial infections are infections caused by a species of mycobacterium other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative bacteria of pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary TB including cutaneous TB; and Mycobacterium leprae, the cause of leprosy. Máiz L, Nieto R, Cantón R, Gómez G de la Pedrosa E, Martinez-García MÁ. Learn about the different treatments for nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease. People with open wounds or who receive injections without appropriate skin disinfection may be at risk for infection by M. abscessus. It is always important to discuss the effect of risk factors with your healthcare provider. Tanaka, Daizo, et al. Most children affected are typically healthy (i.e., not immunocompromised). Atypical mycobacterial infection of the lung in rheumatoid arthritis. Your doctor may try medicines, surgery, and complementary therapies. 2013 Jan;18(1):92-101. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1843.2012.02277.x. Ophthalmic Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery 19.3 (2003): 182-188. [PMC free article] Walker WC. Rao, Jaggi, Theodore A. 1967 Apr; 36 (142):239–251. Radiology 1993; 187:777-782. Most exposures and infections by these organisms do not cause disease, which usually requires a defect in local or systemic host defenses; the frail elderly and immunocompromised people are at the highest risk. Common manifestations included bronchiectasis, air-space disease, nodules, and scarring and/or volume loss. But they can still harm people, especially people with other problems that affect their immunity, such as AIDS. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174240. How and/or why did the patient develop a non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection of the lung? Up to 13 distinct species of atypical mycobacteria are known to cause human infection. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Kluger, Nicolas, Christine Muller, and Nathalie Gral. N2 - The author examined computed tomographic (CT) scans of the chest from 40 patients with cultures positive for atypical mycobacteria. Females with these characteristics are especially at risk for infection, A weakened immune system from certain illnesses or drugs, Having esophageal disorders, which may result in spillage of the gastric contents into the lung leading to lung infections, Exposure to environments where atypical mycobacteria are found. Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary infection in immunocompetent patients: comparison of thin-section CT and histopathologic findings. After putting together clinical findings, special studies on tissues (if needed) and with microscope findings, the pathologist arrives at a definitive diagnosis, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of swabs of ulcers or tissue biopsies, to identify the specific mycobacterium, The complications of Atypical Mycobacterial Infections depend on the type of nontuberculous mycobacterial species causing the symptoms, Elderly adults or immunocompromised individuals (particularly those diagnosed with HIV infection or AIDS) are the most likely candidates to develop complications, which may be severe, More than one type of antibiotic is typically prescribed (usually 2 or 3), due to the relative antibiotic-resistant nature of nontuberculous mycobacterial pathogens, The treatment with antibiotic medications may continue for a year or more, until the lab culture results are negative, Curettage (scraping or scooping) of skin lesions, Surgery to remove skin lesions, infected lymph nodes, or infected lung tissue, Avoiding exposure to contaminated water, especially in pools or spas, Making sure to use disinfected needles or surgical tools, Washing/cleaning surgical tools with uncontaminated sources, Seeking proper treatment for pre-existing diseases and conditions that may result in a compromised immune system, With treatment, these infections can be cured successfully, Without treatment, Atypical Mycobacterial Infections can result in complications and further disease, depending on the type of nontuberculous mycobacteria infecting the body, The elderly and immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV infection and AIDS, are especially vulnerable to such complications, The most common manifestation of Atypical Mycobacterial Infections is lung disease, showing in 94% of cases, Lymphatic disease presents in roughly 3% of the cases, while skin, soft tissue, and disseminated disease makes up the other 3%, The most common Atypical Mycobacterial Infection associated with AIDS involves M. avium-intracellulare, also known as mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Atypical mycobacterial infection has been described in the medical literature since the mid 1950s. S W Watkin, R C Bucknall, M Nisar, R A Agnew; Medical Unit, Broadgreen Hospital, Liverpool. Ellis, S. M., and D. M. Hansell. Comparison of chest CT findings in nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases vs. Mycobacterium tuberculosis lung disease in HIV-negative patients with cavities. However, elderly adults and individuals with poor/weak immunity, are more likely to develop such infections, Males and females are equally susceptible to developing the infection. The identification of multifocal coexistent bronchiectasis, air-space disease, and nodules at CT should raise the possibility of atypical mycobacterial lung disease, even in an otherwise healthy patient. 2004 Jun;231(3):880-6. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2313030833. The most common species of mycobacterium that cause such infections include: The bacteria gain entry into the body in the following manner: Via untreated cuts and abrasions, when swimming, wading through contaminated pools, or any action that causes a part of the body to be submerged in contaminated water, Injection with needles containing nontuberculous mycobacteria, Surgical procedures with contaminated instruments, Untreated open wounds, which allow mycobacteria to enter the body upon exposure. Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections of the lungs often occur in the context of preexisting lung disease, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis, pneumoconiosis, cystic fibrosis, and previous tuberculosis . Article menu . Nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease is caused by infection with specific bacterial germs known as mycobacteria. Jeong YJ, Lee KS, Koh WJ, Han J, Kim TS, Kwon OJ. A risk factor increases one’s chances of getting a condition compared to an individual without the risk factors. Colle… Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare causing: Lung crackles due to fluid accumulation in lungs, Skin lesions that are either seen in isolation, or as part of a more widespread disease, A single lump or pustule (pus-filled bump) that breaks down and forms a crusty sore or abscess, usually on the elbows, knees, feet, knuckles, or fingers, Other lumps that form around the initial lesion, Multiple skin lesions in individuals with a compromised immune system, Red, swollen, and tender joints, observed in rare occasions, Nodules to develop within 2 weeks of infection, through broken skin, Painless, individual nodules (or growth of abnormal tissue) that are 1-2 centimeters large and can be itchy, The nodule may rupture after a few months and form an ulcer, which rapidly spreads to up to 15% of the skin surface, A non-healing wound, or nodule beneath the skin, or an abscess, Widespread lesions in individuals with a compromised immune system, Lung infection and widespread infection in individuals with a compromised immune system, Widespread skin and soft tissue lesions in severely immunocompromised individuals, such as AIDS patients, Non-healing ulcerative skin lesions, or nodules under the skin. "Atypical mycobacterial cutaneous infections." Radiation medicine 19.5 (2000): 237-245. The identification of multifocal coexistent bronchiectasis, air-space disease, and nodules at CT should raise the possibility of atypical mycobacterial lung disease, even in an otherwise healthy patient. (which do not cause tuberculosis) can be initiated when an individual comes into contact with the pathogen either through inhalation, or via cuts, abrasions, and wounds on skin, Signs and symptoms of Atypical Mycobacterial Infections vary, depending on the type of species causing the infection. Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), also known as environmental mycobacteria, atypical mycobacteria and mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT), are mycobacteria which do not cause tuberculosis or leprosy (also known as Hansen's disease). But they can still harm people, especially people with other problems that affect their immunity, such as AIDS. Rarely, individuals with underlying respiratory conditions or impaired immune systems are at risk of lung infection. Feazel et al. MAC encompasses three mycobacterial species known as M. avium,M. Sometimes you can have these infections with no symptoms at all. Atypical mycobacterial infection in the lung: CT appearance. Usually these bacteria are harmless to people but for unknown reasons, NTM lung infections are becoming more common in the developed world, including the United States, particularly in the Southwest (including southern California), Southeast and Hawaii. The anatomic distribution of the above findings was diffuse, not strongly favoring any lung zone. 1990 May;10(3):413-31. doi: 10.1148/radiographics.10.3.2188306. have suggested that atypical mycobacterial disease in CF patients may be subclinically active for a long period of time and that it may contribute to a progressive decline in lung function. The author examined computed tomographic (CT) scans of the chest from 40 patients with cultures positive for atypical mycobacteria. Your healthcare provider may perform additional tests to rule out other clinical conditions to arrive at a definitive diagnosis. Some mycobacterial species and the symptoms they cause include: The diagnosis of Atypical Mycobacteria Infections is made through the following tools: Many clinical conditions may have similar signs and symptoms. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Adverts are the main source of Revenue for DoveMed. The risk factors for Atypical Mycobacterial Infection include: It is important to note that having a risk factor does not mean that one will get the condition. There are also nontuberculous (NTM) mycobacteria, ubiquitous in soil, water, food, on the surfaces of many plants and within buildings, particularly within water pipes. Would you like email updates of new search results? Atypical Mycobacterial Infection is any infection caused by a species of mycobacteria that does not result in classical tuberculosis. Eur Radiol. Respirology. M. kansasii infections are endemic in cities with infected tap water. Serial scans were obtained in 10 patients and showed new areas of bronchiectasis and progression of existing bronchiectasis, suggesting that the bronchiectasis was not a preexisting condition but resulted from infection. Common manifestations included bronchiectasis, air-space disease, nodules, and scarring and/or volume loss. Less commonly observed signs were cavities, lymphadenopathy, and pleural disease. BMC Pulm Med. Nontuberculous (Atypical) Mycobacterial Infection. NTM do cause pulmonary diseases that resemble tuberculosis. Atypical mycobacterial infections are infections caused by several types of mycobacteria similar to the germ that causes tuberculosis. Atypical mycobacterial infections are a more common cause of isolated granulomatous lymphadenitis than is tuberculosis. Kim C, Park SH, Oh SY, Kim SS, Jo KW, Shim TS, Kim MY. Atypical Mycobacterial Infection is any infection caused by a species of mycobacteria that does not result in classical tuberculosis. American Journal of Roentgenology 180.5 (2003): 1455-1459. Treatment guidelines for NTM depend upon the type and extent of the infection, …  |  eCollection 2017. Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery 138.3 (2008): 311-314. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Research Article. Moore EH(1). More than 120 species of mycobacteria have been identified that can cause disease in humans. Q J Med. Those at greate… 2014 Apr 22;14:65. doi: 10.1186/1471-2466-14-65.  |  "Progressing features of atypical mycobacterial infection in the lung on conventional and high resolution CT (HRCT) images." The identification of multifocal coexistent bronchiectasis, air-space disease, and nodules at CT should raise the possibility of atypical mycobacterial lung disease, even in an otherwise healthy patient. Imaging methods, such as chest X-rays and CT scans, are also used, if a lung infection is suspected. Article Text; Article info; Citation Tools; Share; Responses; Article metrics; Alerts; PDF. The anatomic distribution of the above findings was diffuse, not strongly favoring any lung zone. Clinical radiology 57.8 (2002): 661-669. Some general methods to help prevent Atypical Mycobacterial Infections include: The prognoses of Atypical Mycobacterial Infections are generally positive with proper treatment.  |  Dermatologic surgery 28.8 (2002): 768-771. "Atypical Mycobacterial Infection Following Blepharoplasty and Full‐Face Skin Resurfacing With CO2 Laser." A complete physical examination and review of medical history, Imaging methods, including radiographic imaging studies, CT scans, and chest X-rays, A culture of tissue, blood, or sputum (mucus-like fluid in the respiratory tract): Tissues, blood, or sputum are sent to the lab and cultured under specific conditions, to determine the species of mycobacteria causing the infection, Skin biopsy (or tissue biopsy) of the affected area: A skin/tissue biopsy is performed and sent to a laboratory for a pathological examination. USA.gov. The lungs in rheumatoid arthritis. This infection causes respiratory illness in birds, pigs, and humans, especially in immunocompromised people. NTM are found in the soil, air, and water, so you can get an infection from swimming, gardening, or breathing air with NTM. Infections with these organisms have been called atypical, environmental, and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. Yuan MK, Chang CY, Tsai PH, Lee YM, Huang JW, Chang SC. The HRCT findings present will determine the likelihood of infection as the etiology. "Hospital outbreak of atypical mycobacterial infection of port sites after laparoscopic surgery." The source of NTM that cause lung disease is assumed to be the environment, with increasing concern that biofilms that form in municipal water sources may be a significant source. "Atypical mycobacterial infection of the periocular region after periocular and facial surgery." Non-tuberculous (atypical) mycobacteria (NTM) represent a significant proportion of mycobacterial infections and may prove difficult to diagnose due to their non-specific clinical and radiographic presentations. M. abszessus is the most pathogenic rapid growing Mycobacterium which causes pulmonary infection. Some risk factors are more important than others. 2017 Mar 27;12(3):e0174240. A variety of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTMB) can cause pulmonary infections, with important differences in epidemiology, microbiology, host response, and treatment options across the various species. Common symptoms of NTM are chronic, dry cough, and shortness of breath. eCollection 2018 May. Radiographics. Ikuyama Y, Ushiki A, Akahane J, Kosaka M, Kitaguchi Y, Urushihata K, Yasuo M, Yamamoto H, Hanaoka M. Epidemiol Infect. 2018 Jan;28(1):243-256. doi: 10.1007/s00330-017-4959-9. "Atypical mycobacterial cutaneous infections in Hong Kong: 10-year retrospective study." NTM infections … Mycobacterial infection, either by M. tuberculosis (see eFig. Ho, M. H., C. K. Ho, and L. Y. Chong. More importantly, Cullen et al. "Rice-body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis and bursitis: findings on sonography and MR imaging." The pathologist examines the biopsy under a microscope. Up to 13 distinct species of atypical mycobacteria are known to cause human infection. Radiol Clin North Am 1996; 33:719-729. Common manifestations included bronchiectasis, air-space disease, nodules, and scarring and/or … 2018 Jan 4;19(1):142. doi: 10.3390/ijms19010142. one with nontuberculous mycobacteria or NTM, caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which is made of two Mycobacterium species, M. avium and M. intracellulare. As in the case of patients with lung infiltrates on chest X‐ray, in whom atypical infection is high on the list of differential diagnoses, cases of unusual or treatment‐resistant skin lesions should raise the possibility of atypical mycobacterial infection. These atypical mycobacterial infections are a frequent complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or AIDS. Comparative chest computed tomography findings of non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung diseases and pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with acid fast bacilli smear-positive sputum. 1994 May;191(2):343-50. doi: 10.1148/radiology.191.2.8153304. Also, not having a risk factor does not mean that an individual will not get the condition. The treatment options may include: Specific prevention options for Atypical Mycobacterial Infections depend on the infecting species type. AU - Moore, Elizabeth H. PY - 1993/6. M. avium complex (MAC)—the closely related … The exception to this is organisms that cause skin lesions, as well as M. kansasii and M. simiae. In children, lymphadenitis * is the most common type of MOT T infection, whereas lung infections, which occur less often in children, are the most common in adults. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! NLM Most people do not become sick when exposed to these germs. Kobayashi T, Tsuyuguchi K, Arai T, Tsuji T, Maekura T, Kurahara Y, Sugimoto C, Minomo S, Nakao K, Tokura S, Sasaki Y, Hayashi S, Inoue Y, Suzuki K. J Clin Tuberc Other Mycobact Dis. Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung infections are caused by NTM, most commonly M. avium complex (MAC). Kuhlman JE, Deutsch JH, Fishman EK, Siegelman SS. Int J Mol Sci. CT features of thoracic mycobacterial disease. But, the specific susceptibility of each gender may also depend on the mycobacterial species type causing the infection, No racial or ethnic predilection is reported in the occurrence of this infection that is observed worldwide, Having an underlying lung condition, such as COPD, or a lung injury from a previous episode of tuberculosis, or other lung conditions, Having tall and slender physical features, including a curved spine, abnormalities of the breastbone, and mitral valve prolapse. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Dermatologic clinics 27.1 (2009): 63-73. Hong Kong medical journal 12.1 (2006): 21. Journal of Hospital Infection 64.4 (2006): 344-347. Atlanta, GA 30333, USAPhone: (404) 639-3534Toll-Free: 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636)TTY: (888) 232-6348Email: cdcinfo@cdc.govWebsite: http://www.cdc.gov, World Health Organization (WHO)Avenue Appia 20 1211 Geneva 27, SwitzerlandPhone: + 41 22 791 21 11Fax: + 41 22 791 31 11Website: http://www.who.int, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.672.4658&rep=rep1&type=pdf (accessed May 24, 2017), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1891767/ (accessed May 24, 2017), https://www.dhs.wisconsin.gov/publications/p4/p42027.pdf (accessed May 24, 2017), http://www.lung.org/lung-health-and-diseases/lung-disease-lookup/nontuberculosis-mycobacteria (accessed May 24, 2017), http://www.dermnetnz.org/topics/atypical-mycobacterial-infection/ (accessed May 24, 2017). Sometimes you can have these infections with no symptoms at all. [dovemed.com] Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare is the most common etiology of systemic disease in humans. These germs are commonly found throughout the environment. Pulmonary infections due to mycobacterial organisms are increasing in incidence. 1969 Mar 3; 62 (3) :227–238. Some patients are relatively asymptomatic. Chest computed tomography predicts microbiological burden and symptoms in pulmonary Mycobacterium xenopi. 188 Lymph nodes from immunocompromised patients may have a foamy histiocytic infiltration in the paracortex and possibly … They aren't "typical" because they don't cause tuberculosis. Epub 2004 Apr 29. Google Scholar The treatment measures for Atypical Mycobacterial Infections depend on the species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria causing the infection. Compared with tuberculosis, one may see fewer granulomatous changes and a greater degree of acute inflammation with abscess formation. 2019 Jan;147:e108. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Article Text. They’re harmless to most people. The anatomic distribution of the above findings was diffuse, not strongly favoring any lung zone. "Atypical mycobacteria infection following tattooing: review of an outbreak in 8 patients in a French tattoo parlor." Mycobacterial Infections, Atypical Definition Atypical mycobacterial infections are infections caused by several types of mycobacteria similar to the germ that causes tuberculosis. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection (MAI) is an atypical mycobacterial infection, i.e. Mycobacteriosis is any of these illnesses, usually meant to exclude tuberculosis. PLoS One. In a patient with chronic symptoms, infection is less likely, although certain infections, such as atypical mycobacterial and fungal organisms, may have a chronic course, as do diseases with a predisposition to chronic infection, such as cystic fibrosis or immune deficiency. Link, Google Scholar; 21 Patz EF, Jr, Swensen SJ, Erasmus J. Atypical mycobacterial infection of the lung in rheumatoid arthritis. These atypical mycobacterial infections are a frequent complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or AIDS. Atypical Mycobacterial Infections in children are most frequently located in the upper neck region or below the chin. However, most have a combination of respiratory and systemic features similar to tuberculosis; 1. chronic cough 2. shortness of breath on exertion 3. hemoptysis 4. low-grade fever 5. night sweats 6. fatigue 7. weight loss The species of mycobacterium that can cause Atypical Mycobacterial Infection include: Any individual may develop Atypical Mycobacterial Infections; although, the elderly and those with certain pre-existing conditions and compromised immune systems, are at the highest risk for developing the same, Infection by Mycobacterium spp. As a result, the clinical manifestations of NTM lung disease are often similar to those of the underlying disease. Still others cause infections that are called atypical mycobacterial infections. It is also a cause of serious lung infections in persons with various chronic lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis. Email alerts. These may include cough, shortness of breath, skin lesions, and swollen lymph nodes, The diagnosis is made through culture of body fluids and tissues, including of blood, sputum, and skin. "Imaging of non-tuberculous (atypical) mycobacterial pulmonary infection." Prescription antibiotics are typically the mainstay of treatment for Atypical Mycobacterial Infections. Atypical mycobacterial infection of the lung in rheumatoid arthritis. Fraser, Lyndsay, Phillip Moore, and Haytham Kubba. Chau, C. L. F., et al. Pulmonary Atypical Mycobacterial Infection (Lung Mycobacterium Infection Atypical): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis. 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Cutaneous infections in Hong Kong medical journal 12.1 ( 2006 ): 21 study Group individual to.! Gómez G de la Pedrosa E, Martinez-García MÁ Share ; Responses ; Article info ; Citation Tools Share... French tattoo parlor. Avani bhambri, and James Q. Del Rosso species of have! ; 10 ( 3 ): 182-188 of treatment for atypical mycobacteria are most frequently located in absence... Chronic, dry cough, and James Q. Del Rosso CT findings nontuberculous... … the anatomic distribution of the M. kansasii and M. simiae in immunocompromised people findings nontuberculous! N2 - the atypical mycobacterial infection in the lungs examined computed tomographic ( CT ) scans of the periocular region after and... Skin Resurfacing with CO2 Laser. and shortness of breath 8 patients in a French tattoo parlor ''! With prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment a greater degree of acute inflammation with abscess.. Active pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with cultures positive for atypical mycobacteria the of! 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