[24] After the Bar Kokhba revolt (c. 132–136 CE) was crushed, the Roman emperor Hadrian converted the Christian site above the Grotto into a shrine dedicated to the Greek god Adonis, to honour his favourite, the Greek youth Antinous. [130] Palestinians require a permit to enter the Jewish holy site of Rachel's Tomb. King Herod. The Latin clerics were forced to leave, allowing the Greek Orthodox clergy to return. Buses and taxis with West Bank licenses are not allowed to enter Israel, including Jerusalem, without a permit. [46] In the United Nations General Assembly's 1947 resolution to partition Palestine, Bethlehem was included in the international enclave of Jerusalem to be administered by the United Nations. The shortest route to Bethlehem was directly south through Samaria, but its hilly terrain would have proven particularly arduous … Politically Galilee had been under separate administration from Judea during almost all its history since the tenth century B.C. It is now encircled and encroached upon by dozens of Israeli settlements and the Israeli West Bank barrier, which separates both Muslim and Christian communities from their land and livelihoods, and sees a steady exodus from both communities. The temple, and subsequently the town that formed around it, would then have been known as Beyt Leḥem, "House (Temple) of Lehem". Hamas gained the majority of the open seats in the 2005 Palestinian municipal elections. the land of “Judah” (Matthew 2:6) instead of “Judea” (Matthew 2:5)? The Magi Visit the Messiah - After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, Magi from the east came to Jerusalem and asked, “Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews? Bethlehem definition: a town in the West Bank , near Jerusalem : birthplace of Jesus and early home of King... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples [37] In 1250, with the coming to power of the Mamluks under Rukn al-Din Baibars, tolerance of Christianity declined. This technique was used for "royal" wedding dresses (thob malak), taqsirehs and the shatwehs worn by married women. [39] The Ottoman tax record and census from 1596 indicates that Bethlehem had a population of 1,435, making it the 13th largest village in Palestine at the time. [7] The International Museum of Nativity was built by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to exhibit "high artistic quality in an evocative atmosphere".[7]. This Bethlehem is also known in modern times as Beit Lahm, Arabic for "house of meat" or "house of flesh". Who is “Herod the king” (Matthew 2:3)? Christians, like all non-Muslims throughout the Ottoman Empire, were required to pay the jizya tax. [56] The IDF besieged the Church of the Nativity, where dozens of Palestinian militants had sought refuge. Joseph hailed from Bethlehem in Judea, and the decree required citizens to register at their birthplaces. This Bethlehem is also known in modern times as Beit Lahm, Arabic for "house of meat" or "house of Bethlehem – a city in the Palestinian Authority, on the territory of the West Bank, in the historical region of Judea, the capital of the province of Bethlehem. “In Bethlehem in Judea,” they replied, “for this is what the prophet has written: “ ‘But you, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, are by no means least among the rulers of Judah; for out of you will come a ruler who will shepherd my people Israel.’” Then Herod called the Magi secretly and … It also says he was “the son of David, the son of Abraham.” (Matthew 1:1) We could fill volumes proving the case for a Jewish Jesus, and most of us know this well. The city is influenced by the Mediterranean Sea breeze that occurs around mid-day. The flocks would have been tended more in the valley than at the top of the mount, so the temperatures faced by the shepherds would have been warmer than either recorded in Jerusalem or those that Jacob experienced. Bethlehem is sacred to all three religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Travel for Bethlehem's Palestinian residents from the West Bank into Jerusalem is regulated by a permit-system. The most distinct change is the decreased rainfall. Bethlehem University is the first university established in the West Bank, and can trace its roots to 1893 when the De La Salle Christian Brothers opened schools throughout Palestine and Egypt. The shortest route to Bethlehem was directly south through Samaria, but its hilly terrain would have proven particularly arduous for Mary, who was in the late stages of pregnancy. Reports in the Israeli press stated that the army had launched an investigation. In the New Testament, the Gospel of Luke says that Jesus' parents traveled from Nazareth to Bethlehem, where Jesus was born. [76] In the 1967 census taken by Israel authorities, the town of Bethlehem proper numbered 14,439 inhabitants, its 7,790 Muslim inhabitants represented 53.9% of the population, while the Christians of various denominations numbered 6,231 or 46.1%. The center aims to preserve and promote Palestinian embroidery, art and folklore. [104][105][106][107][108] The Gospel of Mark and the Gospel of John do not include a nativity narrative, but refer to him only as being from Nazareth. [81] A statistical analysis of the Christian exodus cited lack of economic and educational opportunity, especially due to the Christians' middle-class status and higher education. It is also known as Beit-Lahm, i.e., “house of flesh.” It is about 5 miles south of Jerusalem, standing at an elevation of about 2,550 feet above the sea, thus 100 feet higher than Jerusalem.. Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of King Herod, behold, wise men from the east came to Jerusalem, saying, (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV) Matthew 2:5 They said to him, "In Bethlehem of Judea, for thus it is written through the prophet, (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV) Matthew 2:6 [76][80] In 2005, the mayor of Bethlehem, Victor Batarseh, explained that "due to the stress, either physical or psychological, and the bad economic situation, many people are emigrating, either Christians or Muslims, but it is more apparent among Christians, because they already are a minority. On Christmas Day 1100, Baldwin I, first king of the Frankish Kingdom of Jerusalem, was crowned in Bethlehem, and that year a Latin episcopate was also established in the town. Bethlehem, meaning "house of bread," was also the renowned City of David. “of Judea”? [2], After the Muslim conquest of the Levant in the 630s, the local Christians were Arabized even though large numbers were ethnically Arabs of the Ghassanid clans. Bethlehem is located about 8 km south of Jerusalem and is currently actually bordered by it. The hometown of the judge Ibzan, Bethlehem of Galilee was inhabited by Jews until some time after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE. Netofa is a valley in the Lower Galilee region of Yisreel, midway between Tiberias and Haifa. The economy is primarily tourist-driven, peaking during the Christmas season, when Christians make pilgrimage to the Church of the Nativity. Why did the prophecy say in Matthew 2:1 After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, Magi from the east arrived in Jerusalem, Matthew 2:4 And when he had assembled all the chief priests and scribes of the people, he asked them where the Christ was to be born. Bethlehem was also the hometown of Ruth’s father-in-law, Elimelech, and where she met Boaz, her kinsman redeemer. Israel descended. Bethlehem (/ˈbɛθlɪhɛm/; Arabic: بيت لحم‎ Bayt Laḥm, "House of Meat"; Hebrew: בֵּית לֶחֶם‎ Bet Leḥem, Hebrew pronunciation: [bet ˈleχem], "House of Bread"; Ancient Greek: Βηθλεέμ Greek pronunciation: [bɛːtʰle.ém]; Latin: Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem[3]) is a city in the central West Bank, Palestine, about 10 km (6.2 miles) south of Jerusalem. "[115] Less formal dresses were made of indigo fabric with a sleeveless coat (bisht) from locally woven wool worn over top. [81], A study by Pew Research Center concluded that the decline in the Arab Christian population of the area was partially a result of a lower birth rate among Christians than among Muslims,[81][87] but also partially due to the fact that Christians were more likely to emigrate from the region than any other religious group. Following these, there are pictures of a historic 100-year snowfall in Jerusalem, Palestine, and Egypt. Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the reign of King Herod. The Magi Visit the Messiah - After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, Magi from the east came to Jerusalem and asked, “Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews? The others were important in New Testament times. “Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea” 1Now after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, magi from the east arrived in Jerusalem, saying, 2“Where is He who has been born King of the Jews? The Bible tells the story of Jesus Christ’s birth in the town of Bethlehem of Judea through the gospels of Luke and Matthew. “Bethlehem of Galilee” was located in the region given to the tribe of Zebulun in northern Israel (see Joshua 19:15), while “Bethlehem of Judea,” where Jesus was born, was located 6 kilometers (4 miles) south of “Jerusalem” (Matthew 2:1), the largest city in Judea and the capital of Israel. It has been traced by some to Byzantium, and by others to the formal costumes of the Ottoman Empire's elite. from eternity.”. [103] This cave was possibly one which had previously been a site of the cult of Tammuz. [7] Baituna al-Talhami Museum, established in 1972, contains displays of Bethlehem culture. [90] Olive wood carvings [91] are the item most purchased by tourists visiting Bethlehem. [31] A story recounted in later sources holds that they refrained from destroying the church on seeing the magi depicted in Persian clothing in a mosaic. [81][87] Amon Ramnon, a researcher at the Jerusalem Institute for Policy Research, stated that the reason why more Christians were emigrating than Muslims is because it is easier for Arab Christians to integrate into western communities than for Arab Muslims, since many of them attend church-affiliated schools, where they are taught European languages. However, Bethlehem suffered from the loss of the pilgrim trade, as there was a sharp decrease of European pilgrims. [9][24] The Church of the Nativity was built at her initiative over the cave where Jesus was purported to have been born. Micah, who had prophesied in the 8th Christian theology has linked this with the belief that his birth there fulfills the Old Testament prophecy of Israel’s future ruler coming from Bethlehem … Bethlehem, Arabic Bayt Laḥm (“House of Meat”), Hebrew Bet Leḥem (“House of Bread”), town in the West Bank, situated in the Judaean Hills 5 miles (8 km) south of Jerusalem. [128], Bethlehem has three bus stations owned by private companies which offer service to Jerusalem, Beit Jala, Beit Sahour, Hebron, Nahalin, Battir, al-Khader, al-Ubeidiya and Beit Fajjar. Bethlehem (House of Bread - House of Lahmu) is located about 10 Kilometers (6 miles) southwest of Jerusalem by the hill country of Judea on the way to Hebron. We saw his star when it rose and have come to worship him.” When King Herod heard this he was disturbed, and all Jerusalem with him. Bethlehem held its first municipal elections in 1876, after the mukhtars ("heads") of the quarters of Bethlehem's Old City (excluding the Syriac Quarter) made the decision to elect a local council of seven members to represent each clan in the town. Bethlehem is located at an elevation of about 775 meters (2,543 ft) above sea level, 30 meters (98 ft) higher than nearby Jerusalem. Bethlehem (Catholic Encyclopedia) An encyclopedia article on the city and its history. Early Christian traditions describe Jesus as being born in Bethlehem: in one account, a verse in the Book of Micah is interpreted as a prophecy that the Messiah would be born there. The Biblical name for the region of Bethlehem in the West Bank is Judea, where King David was also born. Matthew 2 - NIRV: Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea. But this beautiful city is bursting with biblical heritage and wonder, and thus cannot be missed. [38] The Basbus family served as the heads of Bethlehem among other leaders during this period. The Muslims and Christians were organized into separate communities, each having its own leader. [22], Writing in the 4th century, the Pilgrim of Bordeaux reported that the sepulchers of David, Ezekiel, Asaph, Job, Jesse, and Solomon were located near Bethlehem. [9], Following an influx of refugees as a result of Israeli advances in the 1967 war, Bethlehem has a Muslim majority, but is still home to a significant Palestinian Christian community. Answer: At the time of Jesus, Nazareth was in the province of Galilee, in the northern part of Israel, west of the Sea of Galilee. [60] Nearby cities and towns include Beit Safafa and Jerusalem to the north, Beit Jala to the northwest, Husan to the west, al-Khadr and Artas to the southwest, and Beit Sahour to the east. [40], Bethlehem paid taxes on wheat, barley and grapes. [58], Christian families that have lived in Bethlehem for hundreds of years are being forced to leave as land in Bethlehem is seized, and homes bulldozed, for construction of thousands of new Israeli homes. Of Hebrew origin; Bethleem, a place in Palestine. It is first mentioned in the Armana letters fourteen centuries BCE. 5 “In Bethlehem in Judea,” they said, “for this is what the prophet wrote: Its theater presents a 20-minute animated show. Bethlehem, or somehow connected with it. According to the Book of Ruth, the valley to the east is where Ruth of Moab gleaned the fields and returned to town with Naomi. Dec 19 Blog. [113] The Feast of St. Elijah is commemorated by a procession to Mar Elias, a Greek Orthodox monastery north of Bethlehem. The city is about sixty-five miles north of Jerusalem and Bethlehem. bethlehem in judea. In the New Testament Mills and Bullard, 1990, pp. [79] Bethlehem's two largest Arab Christian clans trace their ancestry to the Ghassanids, including al-Farahiyyah and an-Najajreh. [54] More than 20% of the working population is employed in the industry. [24] The same cave is also referenced by the apocryphal Gospel of James and the fourth-century church historian Eusebius. Bethlehem was also the hometown of Ruth’s father-in-law, Elimelech, and where she met Boaz, her kinsman redeemer. Bethlehem is located at an elevation of about 775 meters (2,543 ft) above sea level, 30 meters (98 ft) higher than nearby Jerusalem. “Jerusalem” (Matthew 2:1), the largest city in Judea and The Greek Orthodox clergy were removed from their sees and replaced with Latin clerics. from eternity.” (Micah 5:2), “Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea”. 1871. p. 148. Judea and the surrounding territories (Southern Israel). The Aida and Azza refugee camps are located within the city limits. Bethlehem is the muhfaza (seat) or district capital of the Bethlehem Governorate. [according to whom? Who is “Herod the king” (Matthew 2:3)? Judea, south of Samaria, has a gradual change in landscape. "Bread of Life" (John 6:48), Its primary goals are to teach children music, train teachers for other schools, sponsor music research, and the study of Palestinian folklore music. [93] Bethlehem factories also produce paints, plastics, synthetic rubber, pharmaceuticals, construction materials and food products, mainly pasta and confectionery. [75], In 1948, the religious makeup of the city was 85% Christian, mostly of the Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic denominations, and 13% Muslim. In Pre-Islamic Persia: Literary Sources", "Alphabetisches Verzeichniss von Ortschaften des Paschalik Jerusalem", Pastor's Vision to put Christ back in Bethlehem during Christmas, Franciscan Custody of the Holy Land website – pages on Bethlehem, Bethlehem: Muslim-Christian living together, The priorities and needs for development in Bethlehem city based on the community and local authorities’ assessment, New Testament places associated with Jesus, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bethlehem&oldid=1001456952, Articles with dead external links from March 2016, Articles with dead external links from May 2014, Articles with dead external links from November 2016, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from May 2016, Articles with dead external links from February 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia extended-confirmed-protected pages, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with incomplete citations from April 2014, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from June 2019, Pages with numeric Bible version references, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2015, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from May 2012, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 January 2021, at 19:31. [93], Cremisan Wine, founded in 1885, is a winery run by monks in the Monastery of Cremisan. Martyr probably learned about the cave from local traditions that had been passed down from the time of Jesus' birth. It was no big deal other than the fact that King David was born there. Which communities brought about the rise of the first politician? [6][7] The important holy site of Rachel's Tomb is at the northern entrance of Bethlehem, though not freely accessible to the city's own inhabitants and in general Palestinians living in Occupied West Bank due to the Israeli West Bank barrier. [63] Al-Qawawsa Quarter was formed by Arab Christian emigrants from the nearby town of Tuqu' in the 18th century. [23] There has been no corroboration of this. forth to Me the One to be Ruler in Israel, whose origin is from of old, forth to Me the One to be Ruler in Israel, whose origin is from of old, Taylor, 1993, pp. ... Matthew 2:1 - Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem. [118], Bethlehem is home to the Palestinian Heritage Center, established in 1991. "And David's Bethlehem quite specifically is in Judea… Bethlehem receives an average of 700 millimeters (28 in) of rainfall annually, 70% between November and January. [120], Bethlehem has four museums: The Crib of the Nativity Theatre and Museum offers visitors 31 three-dimensional models depicting the significant stages of the life of Jesus. The town of Bethlehem of Judea, about six miles south of Jerusalem, has always been considered the birthplace of Jesus. [98] Jacir Palace, built in 1910 near the church, is one of Bethlehem's most successful hotels and its oldest. [57], Today, the city is surrounded by two bypass roads for Israeli settlers, leaving the inhabitants squeezed between thirty-seven Jewish enclaves, where a quarter of all West Bank settlers, roughly 170,000, live; the gap between the two roads is closed by the 8-metre high Israeli West Bank barrier, which cuts Bethlehem off from its sister city Jerusalem. It ended with an agreement to exile 13 of the militants to foreign countries. [79], The percentage of Christians in the town has been in a steady decline since the mid-twentieth century. See Judea. [10] Land seizures for Israeli settlements have also prevented construction of a new hospital for the inhabitants of Bethlehem, as well as the barrier separating dozens of Palestinian families from their farmland and Christian communities from their places of worship.[10]. [119] The International Center of Bethlehem is another cultural center that concentrates primarily on the culture of Bethlehem. [84][85] In 2006, the Palestinian Centre for Research and Cultural Dialogue conducted a poll among the city's Christians according to which 90% said they had had Muslim friends, 73.3% agreed that the PNA treated Christian heritage in the city with respect and 78% attributed the exodus of Christians to the Israeli blockade. [14], Archaeological confirmation of Bethlehem as a city in the Kingdom of Judah was uncovered in 2012 at the archaeological dig at the City of David in the form of a bulla (seal impression in dried clay) in ancient Hebrew script that reads "From the town of Bethlehem to the King," indicating[according to whom?] My Bible says he was born “in Bethlehem in Judea.” (Matthew 2:1). "The Bethlehem that's the only Bethlehem that matters for the tradition is David's Bethlehem," Fredriksen says. [64] There is also a Syriac quarter outside of the old city,[62] whose inhabitants originate from Midyat and Ma'asarte in Turkey. The quarters include the Christian an-Najajreh, al-Farahiyeh, al-Anatreh, al-Tarajmeh, al-Qawawsa and Hreizat quarters and al-Fawaghreh — the only Muslim quarter. [83] However, it is likely that there are many other factors, most of which are shared with the Palestinian population as a whole. [38] In 1867, an American visitor describes the town as having a population of 3,000 to 4,000; of whom about 100 were Protestants, 300 were Muslims and "the remainder belonging to the Latin and Greek Churches with a few Armenians. Why is it specified as Bethlehem [109] In a 2005 article in Archaeology magazine, archaeologist Aviram Oshri points to an absence of evidence for the settlement of Bethlehem near Jerusalem at the time when Jesus was born, and postulates that Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Galilee. Talmor, Ronny (translated by Ralph Mandel) (1990). Bethlehem still bears its name today. “But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, though [81] A higher percentage of Christians in the region are urban-dwellers, which also makes it easier for them to emigrate and assimilate into western populations. Includes a history of the early tradition that Jesus was born in a cave. in Bethlehem of Judea; and give their reason for it; for thus it is written by the prophet, that is, the prophet Micah, in whose prophecy, ( Micah 5:2) it stands, and is as follows: View Study Resources . “Bethlehem of Its population is approximately 25,000,[4][5] and it is the capital of the Bethlehem Governorate. [88] Since the Second Intifada, 10% of the Christian population have left the city. The reason Bethlehem – which is really in a desert – does have cold weather is because it is on a range of hills and at an elevation of 2,400 meters above sea level it. Remember, Bethlehem is a few miles south of Jerusalem at about 2,500 feet which is the same as Jerusalem. [9] An American missionary in the 1850s reported a population of under 4,000, nearly all of whom belonged to the Greek Church. "[29] Many scholars have taken this letter as evidence that the cave of the nativity over which the Church of the Nativity was later built had at one point been a shrine to the ancient Near Eastern fertility god Tammuz. The Hebrew Bible, which says that the city of Bethlehem was built up as a fortified city by Rehoboam,[8] identifies it as the city David was from and where he was crowned as the king of Israel. Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, suddenly wise men from the east came to Jerusalem, saying, Noyes New Testament. [59] Bethlehem is situated on the southern portion[clarification needed] in the Judean Mountains. Now when Jesus had been born in Bethlehem of Judaea, in the days of Herod the … [33] By 2016, the Christian population of Bethlehem had declined to only 16%. The population count only included men. As can be seen, the weather is very mild, and church services are held out-of-doors without winter coats. And the rumor is in those places, and among foreigners of the Faith, that indeed Jesus was born in this cave who is worshipped and reverenced by the Christians. [54], Bethlehem is twinned with:[131][132][133], This article is about the city in the West Bank. It was closed down in 2000 due to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, but reopened in 2005 as the Jacir Palace InterContinental at Bethlehem.[99]. Saladin agreed to the return of two Latin priests and two deacons in 1192. thousand years ago, it was a small town of a few hundred to perhaps one thousand The fulfillment of Jesus being born in Bethlehem is in Matthew 2:1a, Now after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king… Joseph and Mary traveled from Nazareth (70 miles north of Jerusalem) to Bethlehem (10 miles south … wise men. Roman Catholic services take place in St. Catherine's Church and Protestants often hold services at Shepherds' Fields.[112]. "[68] Another report from the same year puts the Christian population at 3,000, with an additional 50 Muslims. By: Megan Sauter. [95], Tourism is Bethlehem's main industry. Bethlehem receives its fair share of tourists, understandably so, it is the birthplace of Jesus Christ after all (the exact spot of his birth can even be visited). There were 6,709 housing units, of which 5,211 were households. [32][9], In 637, shortly after Jerusalem was captured by the Muslim armies, 'Umar ibn al-Khattāb, the second Caliph, promised that the Church of the Nativity would be preserved for Christian use. [9] A mosque dedicated to Umar was built upon the place in the city where he prayed, next to the church. [66], According to Ottoman tax records, Christians made up roughly 60% of the population in the early 16th century, while the Christian and Muslim population became equal by the mid-16th century. [53] During the Second Palestinian Intifada in 2000–2005, Bethlehem's infrastructure and tourism industry were damaged. "(Justin Martyr. Bethlehem (Bible Odyssey) A brief history of why Bethlehem is significant. [9], There are over thirty hotels in Bethlehem. "the Galilean Bethlehem") is a moshav in northern Israel. A total of 1.4 billion US dollars was secured for business investments in the Palestinian territories. [73][78] In 1997, the age distribution of Bethlehem's inhabitants was 27.4% under the age of 10, 20% from 10 to 19, 17.3% from 20 to 29, 17.7% from 30 to 44, 12.1% from 45 to 64 and 5.3% above the age of 65. Israel had two towns named “Bethlehem” during this era. [129], The Israeli construction of the West Bank barrier has affected Bethlehem politically, socially, and economically. [35], In 1099, Bethlehem was captured by the Crusaders, who fortified it and built a new monastery and cloister on the north side of the Church of the Nativity. “Bethlehem”? [82][54] Unlike other Palestinian localities prior to 2000, the majority of the employed residents did not have jobs in Israel. [97] The city has more than two million visitors every year. Galilee” was located in the region given to the tribe of Zebulun in northern Israel (see Joshua 19:15), while Did the men return to the Bethlehem of Galilee? [27][28], In around 395 CE, the Church Father Jerome wrote in a letter: "Bethlehem... belonging now to us... was overshadowed by a grove of Tammuz, that is to say, Adonis, and in the cave where once the infant Christ cried, the lover of Venus was lamented. Its total revenue amounted to 30,000 akce. "the Galilean Bethlehem") is a moshav in northern Israel. 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The Greek Orthodox were given control of the basilica and shared control of the Milk Grotto with the Latins and the Armenians. Galilee is an open region, open to the nations, less arid, with vegetation, water…. The others were important in New Testament times. As a Christian village, local women were also exposed to the detailing on church vestments with their heavy embroidery and silver brocade. the capital of Israel. In this story of the destitute widow and the Bethlehem man who later married, protected, and provided for her, we see a picture of Jesus, our kinsman redeemer. Bethlehem is situated on the southern portion in the Judean Mountains. “Bethlehem”? [36], Bethlehem, along with Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Sidon, was briefly ceded to the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem by a treaty between Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II and Ayyubid Sultan al-Kamil in 1229, in return for a ten-year truce between the Ayyubids and the Crusaders. During the celebrations, Greek Orthodox Christians from the city march in procession to the nearby town of al-Khader to baptize newborns in the waters around the Monastery of St. George and sacrifice a sheep in ritual. Both Bethlehem and Jerusalem were in the Roman province of Judea, considerably to the The New Testament says Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, but one rogue Israeli archaeologist says it is far more likely the Christian savior was born in Bethlehem … Bethlehem celebrates festivals related to saints and prophets associated with Palestinian folklore. [17] The Bible also calls it Beth-Lehem Judah,[18] and the New Testament describes it as the "City of David". Quotations designated (NIV) are … Bethlehem still bears its name today. 96–104./ref> [24] After the Bar Kokhba revolt (c. 132–136 CE) was crushed, the Roman emperor Hadrian converted the Christian site above the Grotto into a shrine dedicated to the Greek god Adonis, to honour his favourite, the Greek youth Antinous. [130] Palestinians require a permit to enter the Jewish holy site of Rachel's Tomb. King Herod. The Latin clerics were forced to leave, allowing the Greek Orthodox clergy to return. Buses and taxis with West Bank licenses are not allowed to enter Israel, including Jerusalem, without a permit. [46] In the United Nations General Assembly's 1947 resolution to partition Palestine, Bethlehem was included in the international enclave of Jerusalem to be administered by the United Nations. The shortest route to Bethlehem was directly south through Samaria, but its hilly terrain would have proven particularly arduous … Politically Galilee had been under separate administration from Judea during almost all its history since the tenth century B.C. It is now encircled and encroached upon by dozens of Israeli settlements and the Israeli West Bank barrier, which separates both Muslim and Christian communities from their land and livelihoods, and sees a steady exodus from both communities. The temple, and subsequently the town that formed around it, would then have been known as Beyt Leḥem, "House (Temple) of Lehem". Hamas gained the majority of the open seats in the 2005 Palestinian municipal elections. the land of “Judah” (Matthew 2:6) instead of “Judea” (Matthew 2:5)? The Magi Visit the Messiah - After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, Magi from the east came to Jerusalem and asked, “Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews? Bethlehem definition: a town in the West Bank , near Jerusalem : birthplace of Jesus and early home of King... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples [37] In 1250, with the coming to power of the Mamluks under Rukn al-Din Baibars, tolerance of Christianity declined. This technique was used for "royal" wedding dresses (thob malak), taqsirehs and the shatwehs worn by married women. [39] The Ottoman tax record and census from 1596 indicates that Bethlehem had a population of 1,435, making it the 13th largest village in Palestine at the time. [7] The International Museum of Nativity was built by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to exhibit "high artistic quality in an evocative atmosphere".[7]. This Bethlehem is also known in modern times as Beit Lahm, Arabic for "house of meat" or "house of flesh". Who is “Herod the king” (Matthew 2:3)? Christians, like all non-Muslims throughout the Ottoman Empire, were required to pay the jizya tax. [56] The IDF besieged the Church of the Nativity, where dozens of Palestinian militants had sought refuge. Joseph hailed from Bethlehem in Judea, and the decree required citizens to register at their birthplaces. This Bethlehem is also known in modern times as Beit Lahm, Arabic for "house of meat" or "house of Bethlehem – a city in the Palestinian Authority, on the territory of the West Bank, in the historical region of Judea, the capital of the province of Bethlehem. “In Bethlehem in Judea,” they replied, “for this is what the prophet has written: “ ‘But you, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, are by no means least among the rulers of Judah; for out of you will come a ruler who will shepherd my people Israel.’” Then Herod called the Magi secretly and … It also says he was “the son of David, the son of Abraham.” (Matthew 1:1) We could fill volumes proving the case for a Jewish Jesus, and most of us know this well. The city is influenced by the Mediterranean Sea breeze that occurs around mid-day. The flocks would have been tended more in the valley than at the top of the mount, so the temperatures faced by the shepherds would have been warmer than either recorded in Jerusalem or those that Jacob experienced. Bethlehem is sacred to all three religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Travel for Bethlehem's Palestinian residents from the West Bank into Jerusalem is regulated by a permit-system. The most distinct change is the decreased rainfall. Bethlehem University is the first university established in the West Bank, and can trace its roots to 1893 when the De La Salle Christian Brothers opened schools throughout Palestine and Egypt. The shortest route to Bethlehem was directly south through Samaria, but its hilly terrain would have proven particularly arduous for Mary, who was in the late stages of pregnancy. Reports in the Israeli press stated that the army had launched an investigation. In the New Testament, the Gospel of Luke says that Jesus' parents traveled from Nazareth to Bethlehem, where Jesus was born. [76] In the 1967 census taken by Israel authorities, the town of Bethlehem proper numbered 14,439 inhabitants, its 7,790 Muslim inhabitants represented 53.9% of the population, while the Christians of various denominations numbered 6,231 or 46.1%. The center aims to preserve and promote Palestinian embroidery, art and folklore. [104][105][106][107][108] The Gospel of Mark and the Gospel of John do not include a nativity narrative, but refer to him only as being from Nazareth. [81] A statistical analysis of the Christian exodus cited lack of economic and educational opportunity, especially due to the Christians' middle-class status and higher education. It is also known as Beit-Lahm, i.e., “house of flesh.” It is about 5 miles south of Jerusalem, standing at an elevation of about 2,550 feet above the sea, thus 100 feet higher than Jerusalem.. Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of King Herod, behold, wise men from the east came to Jerusalem, saying, (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV) Matthew 2:5 They said to him, "In Bethlehem of Judea, for thus it is written through the prophet, (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV) Matthew 2:6 [76][80] In 2005, the mayor of Bethlehem, Victor Batarseh, explained that "due to the stress, either physical or psychological, and the bad economic situation, many people are emigrating, either Christians or Muslims, but it is more apparent among Christians, because they already are a minority. On Christmas Day 1100, Baldwin I, first king of the Frankish Kingdom of Jerusalem, was crowned in Bethlehem, and that year a Latin episcopate was also established in the town. Bethlehem, meaning "house of bread," was also the renowned City of David. “of Judea”? [2], After the Muslim conquest of the Levant in the 630s, the local Christians were Arabized even though large numbers were ethnically Arabs of the Ghassanid clans. Bethlehem is located about 8 km south of Jerusalem and is currently actually bordered by it. The hometown of the judge Ibzan, Bethlehem of Galilee was inhabited by Jews until some time after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE. Netofa is a valley in the Lower Galilee region of Yisreel, midway between Tiberias and Haifa. The economy is primarily tourist-driven, peaking during the Christmas season, when Christians make pilgrimage to the Church of the Nativity. Why did the prophecy say in Matthew 2:1 After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, Magi from the east arrived in Jerusalem, Matthew 2:4 And when he had assembled all the chief priests and scribes of the people, he asked them where the Christ was to be born. Bethlehem was also the hometown of Ruth’s father-in-law, Elimelech, and where she met Boaz, her kinsman redeemer. Israel descended. Bethlehem (/ˈbɛθlɪhɛm/; Arabic: بيت لحم‎ Bayt Laḥm, "House of Meat"; Hebrew: בֵּית לֶחֶם‎ Bet Leḥem, Hebrew pronunciation: [bet ˈleχem], "House of Bread"; Ancient Greek: Βηθλεέμ Greek pronunciation: [bɛːtʰle.ém]; Latin: Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem[3]) is a city in the central West Bank, Palestine, about 10 km (6.2 miles) south of Jerusalem. "[115] Less formal dresses were made of indigo fabric with a sleeveless coat (bisht) from locally woven wool worn over top. [81], A study by Pew Research Center concluded that the decline in the Arab Christian population of the area was partially a result of a lower birth rate among Christians than among Muslims,[81][87] but also partially due to the fact that Christians were more likely to emigrate from the region than any other religious group. Following these, there are pictures of a historic 100-year snowfall in Jerusalem, Palestine, and Egypt. Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the reign of King Herod. The Magi Visit the Messiah - After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, Magi from the east came to Jerusalem and asked, “Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews? The others were important in New Testament times. “Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea” 1Now after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, magi from the east arrived in Jerusalem, saying, 2“Where is He who has been born King of the Jews? The Bible tells the story of Jesus Christ’s birth in the town of Bethlehem of Judea through the gospels of Luke and Matthew. “Bethlehem of Galilee” was located in the region given to the tribe of Zebulun in northern Israel (see Joshua 19:15), while “Bethlehem of Judea,” where Jesus was born, was located 6 kilometers (4 miles) south of “Jerusalem” (Matthew 2:1), the largest city in Judea and the capital of Israel. It has been traced by some to Byzantium, and by others to the formal costumes of the Ottoman Empire's elite. from eternity.”. [103] This cave was possibly one which had previously been a site of the cult of Tammuz. [7] Baituna al-Talhami Museum, established in 1972, contains displays of Bethlehem culture. [90] Olive wood carvings [91] are the item most purchased by tourists visiting Bethlehem. [31] A story recounted in later sources holds that they refrained from destroying the church on seeing the magi depicted in Persian clothing in a mosaic. [81][87] Amon Ramnon, a researcher at the Jerusalem Institute for Policy Research, stated that the reason why more Christians were emigrating than Muslims is because it is easier for Arab Christians to integrate into western communities than for Arab Muslims, since many of them attend church-affiliated schools, where they are taught European languages. However, Bethlehem suffered from the loss of the pilgrim trade, as there was a sharp decrease of European pilgrims. [9][24] The Church of the Nativity was built at her initiative over the cave where Jesus was purported to have been born. Micah, who had prophesied in the 8th Christian theology has linked this with the belief that his birth there fulfills the Old Testament prophecy of Israel’s future ruler coming from Bethlehem … Bethlehem, Arabic Bayt Laḥm (“House of Meat”), Hebrew Bet Leḥem (“House of Bread”), town in the West Bank, situated in the Judaean Hills 5 miles (8 km) south of Jerusalem. [128], Bethlehem has three bus stations owned by private companies which offer service to Jerusalem, Beit Jala, Beit Sahour, Hebron, Nahalin, Battir, al-Khader, al-Ubeidiya and Beit Fajjar. Bethlehem (House of Bread - House of Lahmu) is located about 10 Kilometers (6 miles) southwest of Jerusalem by the hill country of Judea on the way to Hebron. We saw his star when it rose and have come to worship him.” When King Herod heard this he was disturbed, and all Jerusalem with him. Bethlehem held its first municipal elections in 1876, after the mukhtars ("heads") of the quarters of Bethlehem's Old City (excluding the Syriac Quarter) made the decision to elect a local council of seven members to represent each clan in the town. Bethlehem is located at an elevation of about 775 meters (2,543 ft) above sea level, 30 meters (98 ft) higher than nearby Jerusalem. Bethlehem (Catholic Encyclopedia) An encyclopedia article on the city and its history. Early Christian traditions describe Jesus as being born in Bethlehem: in one account, a verse in the Book of Micah is interpreted as a prophecy that the Messiah would be born there. The Biblical name for the region of Bethlehem in the West Bank is Judea, where King David was also born. Matthew 2 - NIRV: Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea. But this beautiful city is bursting with biblical heritage and wonder, and thus cannot be missed. [38] The Basbus family served as the heads of Bethlehem among other leaders during this period. The Muslims and Christians were organized into separate communities, each having its own leader. [22], Writing in the 4th century, the Pilgrim of Bordeaux reported that the sepulchers of David, Ezekiel, Asaph, Job, Jesse, and Solomon were located near Bethlehem. [9], Following an influx of refugees as a result of Israeli advances in the 1967 war, Bethlehem has a Muslim majority, but is still home to a significant Palestinian Christian community. Answer: At the time of Jesus, Nazareth was in the province of Galilee, in the northern part of Israel, west of the Sea of Galilee. [60] Nearby cities and towns include Beit Safafa and Jerusalem to the north, Beit Jala to the northwest, Husan to the west, al-Khadr and Artas to the southwest, and Beit Sahour to the east. [40], Bethlehem paid taxes on wheat, barley and grapes. [58], Christian families that have lived in Bethlehem for hundreds of years are being forced to leave as land in Bethlehem is seized, and homes bulldozed, for construction of thousands of new Israeli homes. Of Hebrew origin; Bethleem, a place in Palestine. It is first mentioned in the Armana letters fourteen centuries BCE. 5 “In Bethlehem in Judea,” they said, “for this is what the prophet wrote: Its theater presents a 20-minute animated show. Bethlehem, or somehow connected with it. According to the Book of Ruth, the valley to the east is where Ruth of Moab gleaned the fields and returned to town with Naomi. Dec 19 Blog. [113] The Feast of St. Elijah is commemorated by a procession to Mar Elias, a Greek Orthodox monastery north of Bethlehem. The city is about sixty-five miles north of Jerusalem and Bethlehem. bethlehem in judea. In the New Testament Mills and Bullard, 1990, pp. [79] Bethlehem's two largest Arab Christian clans trace their ancestry to the Ghassanids, including al-Farahiyyah and an-Najajreh. [54] More than 20% of the working population is employed in the industry. [24] The same cave is also referenced by the apocryphal Gospel of James and the fourth-century church historian Eusebius. Bethlehem was also the hometown of Ruth’s father-in-law, Elimelech, and where she met Boaz, her kinsman redeemer. Bethlehem is located at an elevation of about 775 meters (2,543 ft) above sea level, 30 meters (98 ft) higher than nearby Jerusalem. “Jerusalem” (Matthew 2:1), the largest city in Judea and The Greek Orthodox clergy were removed from their sees and replaced with Latin clerics. from eternity.” (Micah 5:2), “Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea”. 1871. p. 148. Judea and the surrounding territories (Southern Israel). The Aida and Azza refugee camps are located within the city limits. Bethlehem is the muhfaza (seat) or district capital of the Bethlehem Governorate. [according to whom? Who is “Herod the king” (Matthew 2:3)? Judea, south of Samaria, has a gradual change in landscape. "Bread of Life" (John 6:48), Its primary goals are to teach children music, train teachers for other schools, sponsor music research, and the study of Palestinian folklore music. [93] Bethlehem factories also produce paints, plastics, synthetic rubber, pharmaceuticals, construction materials and food products, mainly pasta and confectionery. [75], In 1948, the religious makeup of the city was 85% Christian, mostly of the Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic denominations, and 13% Muslim. In Pre-Islamic Persia: Literary Sources", "Alphabetisches Verzeichniss von Ortschaften des Paschalik Jerusalem", Pastor's Vision to put Christ back in Bethlehem during Christmas, Franciscan Custody of the Holy Land website – pages on Bethlehem, Bethlehem: Muslim-Christian living together, The priorities and needs for development in Bethlehem city based on the community and local authorities’ assessment, New Testament places associated with Jesus, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bethlehem&oldid=1001456952, Articles with dead external links from March 2016, Articles with dead external links from May 2014, Articles with dead external links from November 2016, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from May 2016, Articles with dead external links from February 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia extended-confirmed-protected pages, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with incomplete citations from April 2014, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from June 2019, Pages with numeric Bible version references, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2015, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from May 2012, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 January 2021, at 19:31. [93], Cremisan Wine, founded in 1885, is a winery run by monks in the Monastery of Cremisan. Martyr probably learned about the cave from local traditions that had been passed down from the time of Jesus' birth. It was no big deal other than the fact that King David was born there. Which communities brought about the rise of the first politician? [6][7] The important holy site of Rachel's Tomb is at the northern entrance of Bethlehem, though not freely accessible to the city's own inhabitants and in general Palestinians living in Occupied West Bank due to the Israeli West Bank barrier. [63] Al-Qawawsa Quarter was formed by Arab Christian emigrants from the nearby town of Tuqu' in the 18th century. [23] There has been no corroboration of this. forth to Me the One to be Ruler in Israel, whose origin is from of old, forth to Me the One to be Ruler in Israel, whose origin is from of old, Taylor, 1993, pp. ... Matthew 2:1 - Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem. [118], Bethlehem is home to the Palestinian Heritage Center, established in 1991. "And David's Bethlehem quite specifically is in Judea… Bethlehem receives an average of 700 millimeters (28 in) of rainfall annually, 70% between November and January. [120], Bethlehem has four museums: The Crib of the Nativity Theatre and Museum offers visitors 31 three-dimensional models depicting the significant stages of the life of Jesus. The town of Bethlehem of Judea, about six miles south of Jerusalem, has always been considered the birthplace of Jesus. [98] Jacir Palace, built in 1910 near the church, is one of Bethlehem's most successful hotels and its oldest. [57], Today, the city is surrounded by two bypass roads for Israeli settlers, leaving the inhabitants squeezed between thirty-seven Jewish enclaves, where a quarter of all West Bank settlers, roughly 170,000, live; the gap between the two roads is closed by the 8-metre high Israeli West Bank barrier, which cuts Bethlehem off from its sister city Jerusalem. It ended with an agreement to exile 13 of the militants to foreign countries. [79], The percentage of Christians in the town has been in a steady decline since the mid-twentieth century. See Judea. [10] Land seizures for Israeli settlements have also prevented construction of a new hospital for the inhabitants of Bethlehem, as well as the barrier separating dozens of Palestinian families from their farmland and Christian communities from their places of worship.[10]. [119] The International Center of Bethlehem is another cultural center that concentrates primarily on the culture of Bethlehem. [84][85] In 2006, the Palestinian Centre for Research and Cultural Dialogue conducted a poll among the city's Christians according to which 90% said they had had Muslim friends, 73.3% agreed that the PNA treated Christian heritage in the city with respect and 78% attributed the exodus of Christians to the Israeli blockade. [14], Archaeological confirmation of Bethlehem as a city in the Kingdom of Judah was uncovered in 2012 at the archaeological dig at the City of David in the form of a bulla (seal impression in dried clay) in ancient Hebrew script that reads "From the town of Bethlehem to the King," indicating[according to whom?] My Bible says he was born “in Bethlehem in Judea.” (Matthew 2:1). "The Bethlehem that's the only Bethlehem that matters for the tradition is David's Bethlehem," Fredriksen says. [64] There is also a Syriac quarter outside of the old city,[62] whose inhabitants originate from Midyat and Ma'asarte in Turkey. The quarters include the Christian an-Najajreh, al-Farahiyeh, al-Anatreh, al-Tarajmeh, al-Qawawsa and Hreizat quarters and al-Fawaghreh — the only Muslim quarter. [83] However, it is likely that there are many other factors, most of which are shared with the Palestinian population as a whole. [38] In 1867, an American visitor describes the town as having a population of 3,000 to 4,000; of whom about 100 were Protestants, 300 were Muslims and "the remainder belonging to the Latin and Greek Churches with a few Armenians. Why is it specified as Bethlehem [109] In a 2005 article in Archaeology magazine, archaeologist Aviram Oshri points to an absence of evidence for the settlement of Bethlehem near Jerusalem at the time when Jesus was born, and postulates that Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Galilee. Talmor, Ronny (translated by Ralph Mandel) (1990). Bethlehem still bears its name today. “But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, though [81] A higher percentage of Christians in the region are urban-dwellers, which also makes it easier for them to emigrate and assimilate into western populations. Includes a history of the early tradition that Jesus was born in a cave. in Bethlehem of Judea; and give their reason for it; for thus it is written by the prophet, that is, the prophet Micah, in whose prophecy, ( Micah 5:2) it stands, and is as follows: View Study Resources . “Bethlehem of Its population is approximately 25,000,[4][5] and it is the capital of the Bethlehem Governorate. [88] Since the Second Intifada, 10% of the Christian population have left the city. The reason Bethlehem – which is really in a desert – does have cold weather is because it is on a range of hills and at an elevation of 2,400 meters above sea level it. Remember, Bethlehem is a few miles south of Jerusalem at about 2,500 feet which is the same as Jerusalem. [9] An American missionary in the 1850s reported a population of under 4,000, nearly all of whom belonged to the Greek Church. "[29] Many scholars have taken this letter as evidence that the cave of the nativity over which the Church of the Nativity was later built had at one point been a shrine to the ancient Near Eastern fertility god Tammuz. The Hebrew Bible, which says that the city of Bethlehem was built up as a fortified city by Rehoboam,[8] identifies it as the city David was from and where he was crowned as the king of Israel. Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, suddenly wise men from the east came to Jerusalem, saying, Noyes New Testament. [59] Bethlehem is situated on the southern portion[clarification needed] in the Judean Mountains. Now when Jesus had been born in Bethlehem of Judaea, in the days of Herod the … [33] By 2016, the Christian population of Bethlehem had declined to only 16%. The population count only included men. As can be seen, the weather is very mild, and church services are held out-of-doors without winter coats. And the rumor is in those places, and among foreigners of the Faith, that indeed Jesus was born in this cave who is worshipped and reverenced by the Christians. [54], Bethlehem is twinned with:[131][132][133], This article is about the city in the West Bank. It was closed down in 2000 due to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, but reopened in 2005 as the Jacir Palace InterContinental at Bethlehem.[99]. Saladin agreed to the return of two Latin priests and two deacons in 1192. thousand years ago, it was a small town of a few hundred to perhaps one thousand The fulfillment of Jesus being born in Bethlehem is in Matthew 2:1a, Now after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king… Joseph and Mary traveled from Nazareth (70 miles north of Jerusalem) to Bethlehem (10 miles south … wise men. Roman Catholic services take place in St. Catherine's Church and Protestants often hold services at Shepherds' Fields.[112]. "[68] Another report from the same year puts the Christian population at 3,000, with an additional 50 Muslims. By: Megan Sauter. [95], Tourism is Bethlehem's main industry. Bethlehem receives its fair share of tourists, understandably so, it is the birthplace of Jesus Christ after all (the exact spot of his birth can even be visited). There were 6,709 housing units, of which 5,211 were households. [32][9], In 637, shortly after Jerusalem was captured by the Muslim armies, 'Umar ibn al-Khattāb, the second Caliph, promised that the Church of the Nativity would be preserved for Christian use. [9] A mosque dedicated to Umar was built upon the place in the city where he prayed, next to the church. [66], According to Ottoman tax records, Christians made up roughly 60% of the population in the early 16th century, while the Christian and Muslim population became equal by the mid-16th century. [53] During the Second Palestinian Intifada in 2000–2005, Bethlehem's infrastructure and tourism industry were damaged. "(Justin Martyr. Bethlehem (Bible Odyssey) A brief history of why Bethlehem is significant. [9], There are over thirty hotels in Bethlehem. "the Galilean Bethlehem") is a moshav in northern Israel. A total of 1.4 billion US dollars was secured for business investments in the Palestinian territories. [73][78] In 1997, the age distribution of Bethlehem's inhabitants was 27.4% under the age of 10, 20% from 10 to 19, 17.3% from 20 to 29, 17.7% from 30 to 44, 12.1% from 45 to 64 and 5.3% above the age of 65. Israel had two towns named “Bethlehem” during this era. [129], The Israeli construction of the West Bank barrier has affected Bethlehem politically, socially, and economically. [35], In 1099, Bethlehem was captured by the Crusaders, who fortified it and built a new monastery and cloister on the north side of the Church of the Nativity. “Bethlehem”? [82][54] Unlike other Palestinian localities prior to 2000, the majority of the employed residents did not have jobs in Israel. [97] The city has more than two million visitors every year. Galilee” was located in the region given to the tribe of Zebulun in northern Israel (see Joshua 19:15), while Did the men return to the Bethlehem of Galilee? [27][28], In around 395 CE, the Church Father Jerome wrote in a letter: "Bethlehem... belonging now to us... was overshadowed by a grove of Tammuz, that is to say, Adonis, and in the cave where once the infant Christ cried, the lover of Venus was lamented. Its total revenue amounted to 30,000 akce. "the Galilean Bethlehem") is a moshav in northern Israel. Scripture quoted by permission. [110] In a 2011 article in Biblical Archaeology Review magazine, Jerome Murphy-O'Connor argues for the traditional position that Jesus was born in Bethlehem near Jerusalem. We saw his star when it rose and have come to worship him.” Matthew 2:1,2 In one of his six letters to Pharaoh, Abdi-Heba, the Egyptian-appointed governor of Jerusalem, appeals for aid in retaking Bit-Laḫmi in the wake of disturbances by Apiru mercenaries:[11] "Now even a town near Jerusalem, Bit-Lahmi by name, a village which once belonged to the king, has fallen to the enemy ... Let the king hear the words of your servant Abdi-Heba, and send archers to restore the imperial lands of the king! Bethlehem that 's the only Bethlehem that matters for the tradition is David 's hometown that is bethlehem in judea. The Latin clergy returned to Bethlehem, a town in the Manger Square training, 's. Citizens to register at their birthplaces the Arab Ghassanid clans that settled there [ ]. 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